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METALLURGY

Although there are numerous standard fabrication methods that have been used for the fabrication of the traditional materials, the advanced materials cannot be easily prepared by any of them. The new routes of fabrication and processing the so-called High-Tech materials allow to control the subatomic structure showing superior chemical, physical and mechanical properties. ALD can be considered as an ultimate method for controlling surface properties (adhesion, hydrophobicity), surface functionalization (anti-corrosion, diffusion barriers, encapsulation, anti-wear, anti-scratch).

Hydrophobic coatings

Hydrophobic (water repellent) coatings prevent moisture to enter the substrate. Fields of application for this reduced wettabilitty coatings include optics, display technology, electronics, telecommunications, medical technology, automotive applications, decoration, consumer goods or metal finishing.

Example:

Metal oxides in ALD can be utilized to deposit robust and reliable protective and hydrophobic coatings. A thin oxide ALD film is deposited and is used as a seed layer and once the coated surface is prepared, non-chlorinated alkylsilanes can be chemically bonded to the surface hydroxyl groups on the ALD seed layer.
J. Micromech. Microeng., 15, 5, 2005

Corrosion Resistant Coatings

Corrosion resistant or anti-corrosion coatings find application in many industries, particularly in:

1. aero-space industry
2. car-industry, and household appliances
3. medical implants and instruments producing industries

Other applications include: metal industry producing equipment, tools and aid for chemical and food industries, for (sustainable) energetics, for building industry, etc.

Example:

$Al2O3$ and $TiO2$ atomic layer deposition on copper for water corrosion resistance.

Anti-wear and anti-scrath coatings

The need for the use of newer materials to combat wear situations on mechanical components where wear performance in non-lubricated conditions is a key parameter for the material performance, has resulted in the emergence on new solutions using coating materials.

Example:

Hard PVD coatings have gained significant attention due to their resistance to wear, good thermal stability, and low friction coefficient. Unfortunately, they contain through-coating pores, which has rendered them unsuitable for use in corrosive environments. Sealing these pinholes with ALD has been shown to be a viable option for improving the electrochemical barrier properties and enhancing their mechanical properties.